The context surrounding the study of the impact of testosterone on elite athletes is essential in understanding its underlying hypothesis – that “excess” endogenous testosterone confers a competitive advantage. This is a direct outgrowth of the Dutee Chand’s suspension that was overturned because while “possessing high levels of testosterone and thereby increasing lean body mass creates a competitive advantage,” there was no evidence of endogenous testosterone’s impact. It also explains the apparent conflict of interest of the authors; one the head of the International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) [1] Health and Science Department, the other a consultant and member of the workgroup on hyperandrogenic females and transgender issues and was a witness in the Chand case. 

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